What You Need to Know About Sciatica

Sciatica is a term used to describe nerve pain in the leg that is caused by irritation and/or compression of thesciatic nerve。Sciatica起源于腰部,深入臀部,向下行驶。

Sciatica is nerve pain that originates in the lower back and radiates down the buttock to the thigh and leg on one side. The pain may be accompanied by numbness and/or weakness. Watch:Sciatica Overview Video

Sciatica: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment
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Sciatica: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment
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What Does Sciatica Feel Like?

坐骨神经痛的症状are commonly felt along the path of the large sciatic nerve. Sciatica is often characterized by one or more of the following features:

  • Pain。通常觉得坐骨神经痛疼痛是一种恒定的灼烧感或从下背部或臀部开始的射击疼痛,并在大腿和腿和/或脚的前部或背面辐射。
  • Numbness。Sciatica pain may be accompanied by numbness in the back of the leg. Sometimes, tingling and/or weakness may also be present.
  • 片面症状。坐骨神经痛通常会影响一条腿。这种情况往往导致受影响的腿部沉重的感觉。1Rarely, both legs may be affected together.
  • 姿势诱导症状。坐在坐骨时,坐骨症状可能会感到更糟,试图站起来,向前弯曲脊柱,扭曲脊柱,躺下,和/或咳嗽。通过在后骨盆区域上行走或施加热量来缓解症状。

Types of Sciatic Nerve Pain

重要的是要注意任何类型的下背部疼痛或辐射腿部疼痛都不是坐骨神经痛。坐骨神经痛是源自坐骨神经的疼痛。1

腰痛症状,诊断和治疗LDsports电子竞技

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Sciatica Is the Symptom of an Underlying Medical Condition

Sciatica is a term used to describe a set of symptoms caused by an underlying medical condition; it is not a medical diagnosis.2

Common medical conditions that may cause sciatica include1

Rarely, tumors, blood clots, or other conditions in the lower spine may cause sciatica.

Read more aboutSpinal Tumors

除了鉴定导致坐骨神经痛的潜在病理的术语之外,腰部无线疗化或自由疼痛的术语可以与术语坐骨观互换使用。

坐骨神经和坐骨神经痛

这sciatic nerve is formed by the merging of spinal nerve roots from L4 to S3. These nerve roots converge into a single, large sciatic nerve. ReadSciatic Nerve and Sciatica

这sciatic nerve is the largest single nerve in the body and is formed by the union of 5 nerve roots in the lumbar and sacral spine. There are 2 sciatic nerves in the body—the right and left nerves, supplying the corresponding lower limb.

Lumbar Spine Anatomy and Pain

一种few anatomical characteristics of the sciatic nerve include:

  • 起源。从脊椎区段L4的水平开始,坐骨神经通过从L4至S3的脊神经的合并而形成。3.这emerging nerve roots converge into a single sciatic nerve making it large and bulky, typically up to 2cms in diameter.1
  • 小路。在其个体贡献结束后,坐骨神经通过梨状肌肌下的较大的坐骨孢子离开骨盆。然后神经沿着大腿后部跑进腿部,最后在脚下结束。
  • Branches。坐骨神经分裂成2个膝关节神经和常见的腓神经的主要部门。胫骨神经课程向下,提供腿部的背部和脚底。常见的腓神经提供腿部和脚的前部。

手表坐骨神经解剖录影

Rarely, the sciatic nerve may split into 2 nerves near the sciatic foramen, which merge again into a single nerve.3.

Sciatic Nerve Anatomy

特定的坐骨神经痛症状在很大程度上取决于捏的神经根。3.For example, an L5 nerve impingement can cause pain in the back of the thigh and weakness in lifting the big toe and the ankle.4.

这Course of Sciatica

通常,特定事件或损伤不会引起坐骨神经痛 - 而是往往会随着时间的推移而发展。坐骨神经痛影响人口的10%至40%,通常约为40岁。1Sciatica is found to be common in certain types of occupation where physically strenuous positions are used, such as machine operators or truck drivers. Specifically, people who often bend their spine forward or sideways or raise their arms frequently above the shoulder level may be at risk of sciatica.15.

这vast majority of people who experience sciatica typically get better within 4 to 6 weeks with nonsurgical sciatica treatments.1如果存在严重的神经系统缺陷,则恢复可能需要更长时间。然而,估计有33%的人可能会持续到1年的持续症状。6.当严重神经压缩具有渐进症状时,可以表明手术。

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当坐骨神经痛严重时

坐骨神经痛的某些症状可能表明严重的医疗状况,例如Cauda Equina综合征,感染或脊柱肿瘤。这些症状可能包括但不限于:

  • 进步神经系统症状,如腿部弱点
  • 两条腿的症状
  • Bowel and/or bladder dysfunction
  • Sexual dysfunction

It is advised toseek medical attention immediatelyif such symptoms develop. Sciatica that occurs after an accident or trauma, or if it develops in tandem with other symptoms like fever or loss of appetite, is also cause for prompt medical evaluation.

参考

  • 1。Davis D, Vasudevan A. Sciatica. [Updated 2019 Feb 28]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-. Available from:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507908/
  • 2。Cook CE, Taylor J, Wright A, Milosavljevic S, Goode A, Whitford M. Risk Factors for First Time Incidence Sciatica: A Systematic Review. Physiotherapy Research International. 2013;19(2):65-78. doi:10.1002/pri.1572.
  • 3.Giuffre Ba,Jeanmonod R.解剖学,坐骨神经。[2018年12月16日更新]。在:statpearls [互联网]。金银岛(FL):Statpearls出版;2019年1月。可从:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/nbk482431/
  • 4.Ohnishi Y, Yuguchi T, Iwatsuki K, Yoshimine T. Entrapment of the fifth lumbar spinal nerve by advanced osteophytic changes of the lumbosacral zygapophyseal joint: a case report. Asian Spine J. 2012;6(4):291–293. doi:10.4184/asj.2012.6.4.291.
  • 5。斯塔福德马,彭P,山大山。坐骨神经痛:历史,流行病学,发病机制以及硬膜外类固醇注射在管理中的作用综述。英国麻醉杂志。2007; 99(4):461-473。DOI:10.1093 / BJA / AEM238。
  • 6。Fernandez M,Ferreira ML,Refshauge Km,等。坐骨神经痛管理中的手术或身体活动:系统审查和荟萃分析。欧洲脊椎杂志。2015; 25(11):3495-3512。DOI:10.1007 / s00586-015-4148-y。
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